Zero Live #3: Nutrition, Fast Breakers, and Fasting

In our third session of Zero Live, Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD, and Nicole Grant, RDN, answer questions from Zero Members about nutrition, Fast Breakers, fasting, and more.



Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (00:04)

Um, so let’s learn and get smarter together. Why does nutrition matter? While fasting? Nutrition is what happens in between fast and it can advance or interfere with that forward progress you’re making with fasting. So you wanna choose wisely most of the time. And when there’s a deviation and you get off track, you’ll know exactly what you need to do to reset. And so when you’re ready, you can jump back in the game. There are three big reasons why you may want to have a plan for your nutrition when you’re fasting. First, it makes it easier to complete. We like to make things easier. There’s definitely a mood food connection, and your choice of food and drink affects your hormones in your mood. And if your choices provide high quality fuel for your body and brain, you’ll feel good. And it’s easier to stay true to your goals.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (00:58)

In addition to feeling good, better blood-sugar balance allows your body to have steady energy. It’ll be easier to fast if you limit the wild fluctuations of insulin, which we’ve talked about in previous webinars. Remember, by allowing insulin to get lower, you naturally burn fat. Let me repeat that again. Allowing insulin to get lower, you naturally burn fat. And since fat cells are an almost infinite source of fuel for your body, lowering insulin means you have access to that infinite source of fuel, which leads us to the increased satiety in fullness that you can actually fast and fast for longer. So with enough fuel, you’re gonna be less hungry, have fewer cravings, and then the fasting is naturally easier. Number two, your nutrition can extend and enhance the benefits of fasting, which means you can make more progress faster. Remember, lower insulin equals increased fat burn.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (02:06)

By fasting, you are allowing insulin to get lower, and that means you increase fat burning, which is good for healthy weight loss. In addition, there’s that bonus, you activate the signaling pathways that lead to autophagy, which is really the body’s way of cleaning up and repairing, regenerating, and recycling to create new cells and tissues. So this is about burning fat cleaning house and then remodeling for better. So what you eat affects your gut microbiome also, and that affects your brain. We know that the gut microbiome can directly affect your brain chemistry, and that affects mood, memory and thinking. And of course, what you eat affects health outcomes. Optimized nutrition improves health outcomes, and speeds progress to goals because you’re not reversing the benefits of the fast. And you set yourself up for better cells and tissues in the future. And three, nutrition and fasting go together to keep you safe and healthy by being intentional.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (03:16)

Intentional about both. You can better promote your health goals. There’ll be lower risks of nutrient deficiencies and muscle loss. And between fasts, your nutrition provides the building blocks for optimal function and repair. That’s when you’re rebuilding. So appreciate that the nutrients you put in your body will determine the quality of what you are building. Talk to my patients about this, and I say, are you building a hut with flimsy sticks? Or are you building a palace with beautiful marble and stone? Right? You remodel your body by what you put in it. Finally, it reduces your risk of adverse health outcomes. Being mindful of your nutrition allows your body to be in the best state, to be able to burn fat if it needs to, to heal and repair as it needs to, and to build mood enhancing hormones and neurotransmitters so you can feel and think better. And that in turn of course, improves your opportunities for health gain and it reduces your risk of adverse outcomes. So what nutrition focus helps with weight loss and health gain? Next slide. We have our dietician, Nicole here with us today to talk about these recommendations. Handing it over to you, Nicole.

Nicole Grant, RDN: (04:42)

Thanks, Naomi. Um, so we kind of have some key tenets that we wanna think about when we’re choosing our nutrition within our eating window. And this is going to provide those benefits that Naomi nicely described before. So the first one that we wanna think about is prioritizing real food. So what does this mean? Well, we want food that looks like what it originally was in nature. So an apple, for example, we can find that in nature, a chicken thigh, a piece of broccoli, some nuts and seeds, things that are minimally processed. We consider real foods, and this is gonna help for a number, number of reasons. So one, they’re nutrient dense, so we’re getting those really important micronutrients that our body needs. It’s also full of fiber, it’s full of, um, satiating properties that’s gonna keep us feeling fuller longer and helping with our fasting endeavors in the long run. We then wanna think about added sugars and alcohol. These are two

Nicole Grant, RDN: (05:57)

Components in the diet that you know, it, it’s there. Um, and it’s okay to be there in a minimum amount, but we really wanna be mindful of how often we’re doing these things and how, and, and the kind of the, uh, quantity as well as Dr. Parrella. Um, nicely explained there. The added sugars do impact our insulin levels. And so if one of our goals is to burn fat, we wanna keep insulin levels lower and added sugars are a really quick source of these glucose molecules that are going to spike our insulin. So keeping those at a minimum is going to help alcohol as well. That’s going to, one, add a little bit more calories to our diet. And two, it’s also gonna take priority, priority for metabolization. So before the other carbohydrates and fats and proteins can be metabolized. Our body needs to get rid of alcohol first because it does see it as a toxin. Um, and so that is gonna take priority.

Nicole Grant, RDN: (07:10)

The third one is thinking about including fiber and fermented foods. As we discussed earlier, gut health is a big component to overall health and these two types of foods are really gonna support that. Fiber is also very satiating. We can get a large volume of fiber with not a lot of calories, but feel full and help slow down the absorption of carbohydrates, which will also in turn help minimize that glucose response and that insulin spike. Fermented foods, so things like soy sauce, yogurt, kimchi, sauerkraut, those have natural sources of probiotics. So those are the good gut bacteria that we wanna emphasize in our diet. And so incorporating a variety of those will also help support that.

Nicole Grant, RDN: (08:08)

The fourth one is prioritizing adequate protein. Those Dr. Parrella mentioned. We have these periods of fasting, so we’re breaking things down, we’re cleaning house, but then we want that balance of building things back up. And most importantly, when we’re thinking about aging and body composition, we really wanna support our muscle health and protein is gonna supply those building blocks. And finally, we wanna be carbohydrate conscious. So we’ve heard a lot of things like carbs are good, carbs are bad, we’re kind of neutral on the stands as long as we’re being carbohydrate conscious and thinking about where those carbohydrates are coming from. Carbohydrates can come from things like fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, beans, grains, legumes, those are real foods. So those can be prioritized and incorporated into our diet frequently. However, we also wanna be conscious about these more processed carbohydrates. So things that have added sugars, things that are made with flour. Sometimes these more processed things, they do have less nutrients. The more we process ’em less fiber, and they also can increase our insulin a lot quicker than these more real food carbohydrates. So we can include these carbohydrate sources in our diet, but we do wanna be a little bit conscious about where they’re coming from.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (09:51)

Fabulous. Alright, so we talked in the past about fat burning and insulin and the carbs and all of that. What we’re gonna talk about now are Fast Starters. And Nicole, I love this term that you came up with. I don’t know where it came from, but I am loving it. So I’m probably gonna be using this in my practice also. So what is a Fast Starter and why does it matter?

Nicole Grant, RDN: (10:17)

Yeah, I think it was a team collaboration on the terminology here, but we love it too. Um, and so this is the Fast Starter, this is our last meal before we set that timer. And our fast starts, and this is important for a couple of reasons. So we really wanna go into our fast in the best possible state, uh, that we can and what we’re putting in our body right before our fast starts. It can determine how easy or hard that fast is and how quickly we’re getting into fat burning mode. So that transition of when we burn less glucose or sugar as our primary fuel and more fat. So we wanna think about and be a little bit strategic about what that last meal is, right before we hit that, that timer and maybe, you know, put a little thought into where those components and potentially the, the amounts of each of where they’re coming from.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (11:27)

Totally agree. I think the bottom line is if you are smart about your Fast Starter, and of course everybody on this webinar is gonna be smart ’cause we all know about this now, then you are gonna have an easier time of fasting and it’s also gonna be faster that you get into fat burning. So double bonus. So let’s go through the three tips for the perfect Fast Starter. Number one, balance your plate, prioritizing proteins in healthy fats. And we will actually probably dive into some more details about this, correct Nicole? Like probably through the Q&A.

Nicole Grant, RDN: (12:04)

Yeah, we had some great questions coming through, so we’ll definitely dive in more. Yeah. Mm-Hmm. Okay.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (12:08)

Good. Number two, choose your carbohydrates wisely. Again, anything that spikes your insulin really high, really fast is gonna make you hungry. Um, and it’s going to turn off fat burning, which makes it hard to do the fast, right? So that’s why we wanna choose your car carbohydrates wisely. And number three, avoid sugar and ultra processed foods, which is basically number two in more detail. So you wanna prioritize your proteins, healthy fats by and have a balanced plate and you’re gonna be wise about choosing those carbs. And really what we mean is really avoid the sugar and ultra processed foods right before you start your fast. ’cause it’s gonna give you the munchies pretty soon after or it’s gonna make you feel really tired. Anything to add to that, Nicole?

Nicole Grant, RDN: (13:04)

Um, I, I think one thing, um, that’s maybe a fun little tip or trick is you’re going to have a dessert or a late night snack instead of making it a separate meal. Couple that with your dinner and make it one larger Fast Starter. Um, I get that question a lot of like, well, you know, I, I still want my dark piece of chocolate, you know, or, or piece of fruit, something like that. Instead of having your dinner and then, or your last meal and then waiting, um, put it all together and you can still, you know, enjoy those things that way, but it will be part of a balanced plate. You’re coupling it with protein and those healthy fats and those fibers. Um, so it definitely minimizes that insulin response, um, that sometimes we get if we’re having that late night snack.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (14:01)

Fabulous. Alright, fantastic. Shall we move on to Fast Breakers? So another term that I’m loving and adopting Fast Breaker. So what’s a Fast Breaker and why does it matter?

Nicole Grant, RDN: (14:17)

So the Fast Breaker is the opposite. So it’s the first meal at the end of our fast and we’re very excited. We get to get that green check mark that we completed our fast. Um, and then we get to dive in and have a delicious meal. So it’s that first meal, that first food and nutrient that our body is getting right after our fast. And this is important for a couple of reasons. I think the biggest one is probably that we work so hard getting the benefit from our fast, why not extend those benefits to the best of our ability? We still wanna nourish our body and get some nutrients in, but is there a way to continue fat burning mode? Is there a way to, um, you know, help with our metabolic flexibility, you know, not spiking our insulin, um, and things like that. So, um, I think that’s one of the biggest ones is we really just wanna extend the fasting, um, and, you know, add on to that hard work that we just did.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (15:23)

Absolutely. And I always think about, really, the key is when somebody is breaking the fast, you want to think about what it’s, how your body’s going to respond to what you put into it. So is it gonna keep you in control or is it gonna throw you out of control and unable to burn fat and not having enough fuel, right? So you can kind of think about it and be very deliberate. Doesn’t mean you’re always going to, you know, do your most ideal, uh, form, but it’s helpful to really be aware that it makes a huge difference. Um, Alright, so let’s go with the five tips for the perfect Fast Breaker. Let’s see ’em number one, ease in with hydration. And with hydration. This might include electrolytes or some salty broth, for example, might be a really nice way to ease in. Um, number two, support your gut microbiome.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (16:22)

Excuse me. Um, again, this would be things like fermented foods can be really nice, um, ad here. And so if you had, let’s say, um, some sauerkraut or kimchi or a fermented pickle or olives and you’re having some water, that would be the easing in with hydration and supporting your gut microbiome. Number three, go easy on extra fibrous vegetables. Again, if people have had experiences, I don’t know if anyone’s out there with an experience of having bloating with that first meal after eating, um, and you’ve just had a massive, you know, raw veggie salad that can cause some bloating. Um, if your gut’s not ready for it yet. So you might wanna start with some cooked vegetables. Number four, um, include protein. And of course this is all fitting into what we talked about earlier. So you wanna give yourself some protein in number five, delay carb consumption.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (17:28)

Again, thinking about the effect that you want to, um, create in your body. If you start with, um, some really starchy or sugary or highly processed carbs, right at the, when you break your fast, it’s going to throw off the hormones dramatically so you’ll have a huge insulin surge. And that’s just really hard for the body then to get back into sort of a, you’re kind of on a rollercoaster then, right? You, it’s hard to get stabilized again. So it makes eating choices later more difficult because you’re just gonna be driven by this constant desire to snack or graze. So again, if you push it to the end of that Fast Breaker meal, then you’re not gonna have that effect as much because your body’s sort of eased in and it’s got some other nutrients to, um, help level off that insulin effect. What are your thoughts, Nicole?

Nicole Grant, RDN: (18:25)

There’s this really interesting study that comes to mind about the ordering of your components in your meal. And in this particular study, in a composed meal, it was the exact same, but they just switched around the order of what they ate first, and the first time they ate the meal, it was orange juice, choda bread first, so carbohydrate sources. And then they ate the protein and then they ate the fiber and then they switched it. So they did fiber and protein first, and then I think it was actually 15 minutes. So there was a little bit of a delay there. So they really took their time eating that protein and that fiber. 15 minutes later, that’s when the carbohydrate consumption came in. And what they saw was a massive reduction in glucose spikes. So there’s this thing that we look at, it’s called the area under the curve.

Nicole Grant, RDN: (19:25)

And so when you’re plotting your glucose levels, we kind of have this arc that goes up and down. So you eat your meal and the glucose goes up and then it starts coming down. And so they compared this arc, um, or this curve, I guess is what they call it. And the people that ate the protein and fiber first, their curve was 73% lower than the curve of the people who ate carbohydrates first. So I think that was a pretty cool study that just shows that even the, or some simply shifting the order of your meal can make a big shift in your glucose and your insulin levels.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (20:10)

Absolutely. That’s so awesome. Alright, so now we are going to move on to the very, very common question. Does it break my fast? We get this question a lot, don’t we, Nicole?

Nicole Grant, RDN: (20:28)

All the time.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (20:29)

Time. So, the answer is a little bit disappointing. It depends. It’s really why you are fasting and your reason for fasting determines whether or not something breaks your fast. There may be three major reasons for fasting weight loss or metabolic dysfunction. And we’re talking about polycystic ovarian syndrome, prediabetes, diabetes, um, insulin resistance, fatty liver. That would be one area. And again, we talk a lot about insulin in that space. The second is gut health, really about the rest and reset and the gut microbiome. And number three is for autophagy, again, that cleaning house function that the body naturally has. And this is about, uh, cleaning and recycling. So for today’s topic, which is really about fasting for weight loss, um, ask yourself these two questions to know if it breaks the fast relevant to weight loss. Number one, does it contain, will it raise my insulin? Will it raise my insulin? This is again, important. High insulin, no fat burning, low insulin fat burning, pretty simple. Does it contain calories? Nicole, tell us about the calorie considerations, which we see here in this yellow box. Um, right here.

Nicole Grant, RDN: (22:03)

Yeah, so we kind of made it a little bit more nuanced, um, to help people give them a little bit of flexibility in their eating and fasting windows. So we kind of categorize them as good, better, and best. So the first one is: 250 calories or less can still be a good option within your fasting window if you really need to have some food to get you to the end of your fast. There was one study by, uh, Buting, and he did a prolonged fast and they set their, um, caloric cap at 250 calories. And even with this cap, they were still able to lose weight, reduce inches in their waist, um, reduce cholesterol levels and blood sugar. So there were definitely still some benefits that we saw. So it is possible to still have some calories in your fasting window and still achieve your weight-loss goals.

Nicole Grant, RDN: (23:14)

However, if we wanna take it up another level, get to the better category, we would ideally want to reduce this caloric intake to about 10 to 15. And this is a little bit better because you’re less likely to spike your insulin when calorie intake is lower. And it also doesn’t signal these certain pathways in your body that can sometimes inhibit fat breakdown. So when our body senses caloric intake, sometimes these fat burning signals do get dimmed or shut off. So if we can keep those calories lower, the better that brings us to the best option. You know, ideally we will have zero calories within our fasting window to really maximize our fasting benefits.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (24:13)

Fantastic. Alright, now we’re gonna transition to questions that were sent in. So I’m gonna, um, read off the question, the topic, and then the question, and there might be one or two under a topic and we’ll see how many we can get through. And Nicole, I’ll just kind of pose ’em and you can start answering them. ’cause a lot of these are again about nutrition. So I wanna make sure, um, people get their questions answered. The first topic is on protein. We’re talking about, um, how to get enough protein, vegetarian plant-based options. There are a lot of really great questions here. So question number one, how much protein should I be getting in one day and in one meal? Nicole,

Nicole Grant, RDN: (24:56)

This is a great question. Um, so we try to take a little bit of an individualized approach to this. So first we wanna think about your total daily intake. And when we break it down, we wanna first think about our BMI. So if your BMI is greater than 30, and you’re not a competitive athlete or bodybuilder, um, um, we wanna set a protein intake based off your weight. And the range that we typically use is 1.2 to 1.6 grams per kilogram. So you have to take your weight and pounds, convert it to kilograms, and then multiply that by 1.2 or 1.6. And again, this is a general recommendation. If you have a medical condition or need to limit your protein, obviously work with your dietician or doctor, but this is the general range that we start with for people who have a b migrator than 30.

Nicole Grant, RDN: (25:59)

So as that translates to, well, a person who’s 200 pounds, this would be about 110 to 145 grams per day. Alternatively, if your BMI is under that 30 threshold, um, and if you’re older than 50, so we do look at age as well. Um, you’re exercising regularly or you’re trying to lose weight. So probably a lot of the participants here today, um, with the weight loss goals, we pushed out a little bit higher. So we think about 2.2 grams per kilogram or that translates to a gram per pound of body weight. So that’s a little bit easier of a conversion. So you take your weight in pounds and that’s how many grams that you’re going to be eating. So if you’re 150 pounds and you need 150 grams per day, so that’s the total protein intake, um, hopefully you all followed. Um, so once you figure that number out, then I would start with your Fast Breaker.

Nicole Grant, RDN: (27:07)

So that first meal of the day, we really want to prioritize protein for the numerous reasons that we discussed. Um, but at 30 grams per day threshold, it really helps to stimulate your muscle protein synthesis. So your building of your muscle gets stimulated when we get at least 30 grams of protein. So let’s start from there and see, okay, can I get some eggs? Can I get some smoked salmon, maybe tofu, you know, some sort of protein, build it up to that 30 grams. And then the rest of your day, depending on how short or long your eating window is, you might have one or two more meals or a snack, then you distribute the rest of that total protein intake, um, within those following meals and snacks.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (28:00)

Absolutely, and I think it’s really important to know in the past we used to believe you could only absorb a certain amount, like roughly about 40 grams of protein at a time. And some recent literature is showing you can actually absorb more than that. Um, and so however many meals you divided up into or however few meals, um, you can still achieve that. And so, um, our next question is actually gonna get more, a little bit to that. How do I get enough protein while fasting? And what are some good animal and plant-based options?

Nicole Grant, RDN: (28:30)

Great question. So I think there’s a theme that’s coming up today. Prioritize protein. So have protein at each meal. I kind of think about when you’re building your meal, when you’re building your snack first, where’s my protein source coming from? So if we can kind of keep that in mind, then you’re likely gonna get close to your goal. Um, if you’re eating, even if you’re cooking at home, ask for double portions of protein. You know, they like to kind of skimp out at restaurants sometimes. So I say just ask for double that will automatically give you a boost in your protein consumption. You can also eat your protein first, like we discussed. Um, before you get full, you know, you wanna have your protein that’s gonna fill you up. You wanna make sure you’re eating that first before you get full off of other food items. Um, so those are some tips just to work those, you know, protein choices throughout the day and where protein is coming from. There are many plant-based and animal-based options. So we can, you know, some of the plant-based options. We have eggs, fish, shellfish, chicken, beef, pork, venison, dairy, a lot of options there that are great to get a variety in. And then for the plant-based people, we have some great options too there. Tofu, tempe, beans, legumes, lentils, even nuts and seeds can provide a good source of protein as well.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (30:06)

Fabulous. Alright, so, um, one other thing I’m just gonna throw in, um, as a physician, um, many people who are seeking weight loss are on injectable weight loss medications or other medications that suppress appetite. Anything that causes somebody to eat a lot less means they have to plan for, and absolutely make sure they get adequate protein. Otherwise, there’s a significant loss of muscle mass, which is very hard to rebuild once it’s lost. And so highly, highly recommend you know, your protein sources that you love and that are easy for you and keep a list. And, um, you know, dieticians can have, uh, really great, uh, lists and help in that space. ’cause this is their specialty, right? So if you find a registered dietician near you or use our Xero app or you know, message us here, then Nicole can help us with those answers too. So, Alright, we’re gonna switch from proteins to our second topic, which is Fast Breakers and starters, which we talked about. And this is really about how to avoid problems that can happen. Um, and maybe we kind of a little bit touched on this, but I just wanna dive a little bit deeper because I hear this a lot in the clinic. How can I best avoid GI symptoms such as stomach pains, diarrhea, and gas when breaking my fast, super common problem for many?

Nicole Grant, RDN: (31:38)

Yes, yes. So in order to best avoid some of these GI symptoms that can come with the prolonged period of not eating, we gotta restimulate the digestive system a little bit. But there’s ways to help us ease into this transition. The first one we talked about was cooking our fibrous foods instead of eating them raw. So steaming your broccoli and roasting food, making it a little bit easier for our body to break down. We can also think about, especially our plant-based options, legumes and grains. There’s a little trick here, uh, around soaking and sprouting these products. So you can put them in a bowl of water and let it sit for 24 hours, and that’s considered soaking it. And again, that’s almost pre digesting, these, these legumes and kind of the, the harder outer layer. You can also buy sprouted grains that are already, this process is already done for you.

Nicole Grant, RDN: (32:45)

I tend to gravitate more towards those, but that’s one way to better digest legumes especially, which I feel like even non faster. You know, a lot of people do have problems digesting legumes, so if they’re sprouted, that’s actually gonna elp you out there. Similar concept with dairy, uh, more fermented options. So yogurt being a common one, or kefir, that is gonna be a little bit predigested too. Those probiotics help you out. So those tend to be a little bit easier on the digestive tract versus a cup of milk, which is, doesn’t have those probiotics typically. Um, a couple other quick tips. You know, eat slowly, don’t overdo it. Um, you know, give your body some time to digest things and chew your food thoroughly. You know, that’s the first step in our digestive process is chewing our food. So give yourself some time at your meal.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (33:49)

Alright, um, we’ll go to our next topic, which is about eating windows. Um, the first question, which I’m super excited about is, is it necessary to cut out carbs completely to lose weight fast? Or can I still have some during my eating window, for example, a cookie or small bowl of ice cream? Um, do you wanna start with that

Nicole Grant, RDN: (34:17)

? Yeah, I mean, I’m happy to. Sure. I’d love to hear your thoughts as well. Yes. Um, but yes, I get this question a lot. You know, do I have to give up my, you know, favorite carbs to lose weight? The answer is no. You do not have to give them up. There’s definitely balance in what we can do. Um, but you have to weigh, you know, the more processed sugary carbohydrates with your anticipated progress to your goals. So if we’re gonna be having, um, foods that spike our insulin pretty frequently, then it might take a little bit longer to reach our goals because we’re probably not gonna be in fat burning mode as often as we would like. Um, so I think it’s kind of an individualized process here. A little bit of trial and error. You know, see what your progress looks like when you have a bowl of ice cream every night. See what happens when you have it maybe just once a week. And I think that experimentation can kind of give you a sense of what’s gonna work well for you.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (35:30)

Yeah. So I am not an all or none person, so, um, and I don’t expect that of anybody. I actually have never had a patient ever that’s done the same thing perfectly for the rest of their life that just never, that never happens, right? So, um, so anytime somebody tells you you have to do it completely, that’s probably not accurate. Might be, you know, you could do a short period of time, you could, you know, think about that. Um, you don’t have to cut out carbs completely, but again, we talked about being carb conscious. Know what you’re doing and make a deliberate decision. So if most of the time you’re on track and you’re seeing, you know, you’re, uh, moving forward in your progress towards your goals and you feel better and your, uh, health numbers are improving and your doctor’s like high fives, whatever you’re doing is working for you, you’re in good shape, right?

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (36:27)

Like, you’re doing a great job if you wanna speed it up, you’re gonna keep moving in that direction faster by not deviating from that for a period of time. So you keep moving in that direction, but nobody is perfect and life happens. And being a perfect human means you make mistakes or you do things differently sometimes, and maybe not the way you intended. Um, but we learned from that. So the most important thing is if you find that it’s impossible to do something completely all the time, you’re human and you can just let that go. So will it be faster if you go for a longer period of time up to a point? And then you wanna also give your body a little bit of flexibility, right? So, um, the body expects to have to adapt and you wanna work it so that it can do that.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (37:19)

So nothing is all or none. Um, but you may have times if you’re, if you’re on many medications and you have a lot of, um, comorbidities that, uh, are related to your weight, you may wanna be a little bit more strict because you have, you actually have to turn the ship around, right? Um, because you might be going in a direction that’s not serving you. Um, so it might take a little bit more to get going in that direction. And then once you are, then you have more choices. So that’s the whole point is you wanna get in the situation where you have more choices. So, um, I feel really strongly about that one because a lot of people struggle with, um, you know, I’m not perfect. I’m like, well, you’re perfectly human, right? So, um, the second thing to think about is this second part of the question, which really intrigued me.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (38:08)

So cutting out carbs completely. And then basically the carb choices, or a cookie or a small bowl of ice cream. And remember, carbs can be rice, potatoes, pasta, right? It doesn’t have to be a sugar. Sugar acts very differently in the body than, um, sugar with fructose, uh, which is like part of table sugar acts very differently in the body than glucose. And so we, we, this is like a whole nother webinar, and we’ll get to that in the future, but I just wanna point that out. Um, carbs like potatoes or rice or, um, something to that effect, uh, probably is gonna be a better decision than something that’s filled with a lot of sugar. Um, and again, we, we won’t have time to talk about this today, but a continuous glucose monitor might be a way that, uh, some people self-assessed to figure out which, um, sugary food is the one that, you know, harms them the most or the least, right? So, um, but we can talk about that at a future webinar. Um, what foods help you feel full for longer and how can you curb cravings? We kind of talked about this,

Nicole Grant, RDN: (39:33)

I think we covered a lot of this, but yeah, just to reiterate, I think to help with satiety and feeling fuller longer, we can definitely prioritize the protein, fiber, healthy fats, those are all really satiating foods. Um, better blood sugar control is linked to less cravings, less hunger. If our blood sugar is constantly going up and down, our body’s a little bit nervous, and, you know, when we start dropping too fast too quickly, that’s when we start saying, Hey, I need a quick source of energy. I need, you know, carbohydrates, I need something that’s going to have that immediate effect. So when we’re able to stabilize that blood sugar, our hunger levels tend to stabilize as well. And I think the third point we kind of touched on a little bit is hydration. Um, not only with water and sometimes electrolytes as well can really hydrate our body.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (40:40)

Alright, now we are at time for the top 10 Zero Members tips and tricks. I’m just literally gonna read them off. Um, feel free to post some comments in the chat. Um, and then again, if you have Q&A, we’re gonna get to that, uh, soon. So here we go. number-one tip from, uh, Zero faster. Break your fast with protein. There were two quotes that we have here. Open your window with a protein, like a hard-boiled egg. Another person wrote that having a high-protein breakfast at about 9:00 AM and lunch by 1:00 PM has proven to me that it’s easier to achieve your goals. Tip number two, it’s about hydration on waking. I have green tea, both cold infusion and hot, and then gave a strong and have a strong coffee at 11:00 AM This gets me through to 1:00 PM under hydration. Also, adding salt and or electrolytes plain to your water helps to increase the length of your fast. That’s a pretty good one. Alright, tips to manage hunger. Number three, bone broth and hunger disappears after 10 minutes or so. Again, the hunger waves, right? Just because you’re hungry for one minute, it will actually pass. Um, number four, find a way to create accountability. Somebody wrote that Zero has definitely helped me be accountable from the time I start the timer until I have to break my fast.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (42:17)

Number five, have a strategy for macro timing. No carbs at night helps me with losing weight. Number six, be mindful of what you eat and drink in your eating window. People mistake an eating window as unlimited eating. And also another tip, staying away from soda. It’s listed there. One trick I use at times is brushing my teeth straight after my last meal for the day. This helps me not to think about snacking. Number eight, eat with glucose and insulin in mind. Eating for healthy glucose levels seems to have helped me stick to fasts, low carb, high protein, and lots of veggies. Number nine, always be willing to learn and change what worked yesterday. May not work tomorrow.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (43:14)

Number 10, starting at 10 hours fasting goal and then increasing it by one hour each month ‘til I reach 16 or 22 hours. Those are the top 10 tips that were turned in with the registration, so we’re continuing to collect them and, um, we’ll continue sharing. Now, what we’d like to do is transition to live Q&As from the chat. Got about 10 minutes. And, um, at the end of our time, we are going to give a summary of the last five points. We’re thinking, Nicole, what do you think? Do more questions and go a little bit over to allow more people to get their questions answered.

Nicole Grant, RDN: (43:59)

Yeah, I think that’s fine. We can go a little bit over and okay. Try to get to all as many as we can.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (44:04)

Alright, let, let’s do this. Okay, alright. So see a question here. What is the relationship between fasting, alternate day fasting and hypothyroid? That’s a very good question. So, um, so there’s been comments and I think some, uh, belief, that hypothyroidism can be affected or thyroid levels are affected with fasting. So I’m not exactly sure the question between fasting and alternate day fasting. So alternate day fasting is a type of fasting where basically every other day you eat a lot less, like 500 calories or so. And then on, um, alternate days, you’re eating your usual amount of food. So, or might be 25% of your usual calories. There’s different ways that it’s being done. Um, Nicole, what is the literature saying on hypothyroidism and, uh, fasting?

Nicole Grant, RDN: (45:14)

I think the biggest takeaway here is if you are consuming enough calories in your eating window, you’re not going below. And if this basal metabolic rate, which is your minimal caloric need, if you’re not going below that too often, it should not have a huge impact on your thyroid. Um, so I think your thyroid gets a little bit afraid when you’re chronically undereating well below your needs. So I haven’t seen much literature and alternate day fasting and thyroidism, you know, hypothyroidism. Yeah. Um, but you know, we kind of promote a more of a daily sustainable fast between 12 to 18 hours. So if you’re doing that and you’re able to give your body enough energy and enough nutrients, then it should not put you in a low thyroid state. Um, but again, everyone’s medical journey is different. So I would definitely, um, you know, argue to speak with their doctor and just make sure what they’re doing is right. Um, but that’s, that’s my 2 cents there.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (46:28)

So the good news is thyroid has, um, a series of labs, so not just the thyroid stimulating hormone or the TSH, but additional thyroid labs that can be tested and monitored. So you can actually look and see how that affects you. What I’ve found is a lot of people will be taking some sort of a supplement, um, which might have multiple different, uh, supplements combined together, and that can affect thyroid hormone levels and lab results. And so it’s hard to separate out. I haven’t actually seen much literature. I’m not even sure I’ve seen any literature specifically on alternate day fasting and hypothyroid. So sorry, I don’t know that literature. Um, what foods should be avoided when referring, and how long should we wait to consume other foods? Maybe, um, what foods should be

Nicole Grant, RDN: (47:24)


Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (47:25)

Refeeding, okay, yes.

Nicole Grant, RDN: (47:30)

So I would kind of turn to our Fast Breaker kind of matrix here. So thinking about protein, thinking about easily digested, you know, vegetables, some healthy fats, you know, maybe delaying the carbohydrates a little bit, perhaps 15 minutes or even longer. Um, so, uh, Greek yogurt with some berries and maybe some seed sprinkled on top. That could be a nice Fast Breaker or egg eggs with cooked vegetables, making it a nice omelet. Um, so something like that might be a good, some good Fast Breakers that, does that answer the question?

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (48:12)

Well, the question was, foods to avoid. So, oh,

Nicole Grant, RDN: (48:15)

Foods to avoid,

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (48:16)

To avoid are really the foods that, um, cause massive hormonal dysregulation. And we’re again talking about insulin, right? So if you, um, have been fasting, your insulin level can trend down, which is nice because your body is getting into a peppering state. It’s fantastic. So the first thing that you eat when you’re refeeding, again, if it’s something that’s very ultra processed, or even worse, a sugary drink, oh, it’s like straight into your bloodstream. You, your body is like, what the hell just happened? The insulin’s out of control. Now you’re on the rollercoaster because you have very high insulin. Again, we’re back into mini medical school that I keep, you know, going back to, but you know, your insulin spikes high. That’s in response to a very high sugar load that just got dumped in your bloodstream. Because let’s say you just drank a Gatorade thinking you’re giving yourself electrolytes, but it’s got just a ton of sugar in it, right?

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (49:17)

Spikes that insulin. Your insulin is very high. Now, what your body has to do is it’s gonna take all the extra sugars that were just dumped in the bloodstream, it’s gonna shove it into the fat cells to try and get it out of the bloodstream so you’re not poisoned by all that sugar. And then what do you do? You have no more fuel in your bloodstream, but your insulin is still so high, so you can’t actually get into your fat cells to get more fuel. So you’re gonna get really hungry or hangry, right? And you’re gonna go seek out food. And it’s very rare that somebody goes off and says, I have to get a bowl of broccoli. They’re usually running around looking for something that you can get in a vending machine, which is not broccoli. So I think this is the biggest challenge of, um, the refeeding time. So avoid things that make your blood sugars skyrocket, um, that would be important. Next, a really good question. Are there food replacements for fiber? I’m unable to eat fiber, so glad we have a dietician here for this.

Nicole Grant, RDN: (50:27)

Food replacements for fiber. Um, uh, I mean, if I think, if the question here is how do I still support my gut health? Um, then we would still wanna focus on real foods. So we do see some shift in ultra processed or highly processed foods, um, shifting our microbiome in a negative direction. It’s less diversified, um, so would still stick to real foods as much as you can, um, incorporating fermented foods if possible. So at least getting the probiotics in there that will support gut health. Um, but yeah, I, I don’t know if there’s an actual supplement for fiber, but there’s other ways around it that you can still support your gut health.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (51:25)

I think this is an interesting question because I have a lot of patients, um, sent to me with, you know, the unknown gut issue, um, where somebody might say, it sounds like leaky gut or irritable bowel, or some kind of intolerance to certain foods, or, I have an allergy to foods. And sometimes the gut microbiome has been so disrupted either by extremely highly processed foods, some toxins, or even a course of very strong antibiotics. If somebody’s had an infection that required antibiotics, it can really throw off the bacteria that live in your gut. So the balance is off. That might make it harder for your body to manage fiber, because fiber is really to feed your gut, right? It’s to allow the gut microbiome to have some fuel. That’s what they feed off of. And so if you cannot tolerate it, then you’re gonna wanna do something like having miso soup or, you know, some yogurt or probiotic drink. Um, those might be better options early on to let your gut sort of reset. This is also another place where fasting can be very, very helpful. Um, and it’s beyond the scope of today’s, uh, Q&A time. But yeah, love, love, love that question as well. Um, let’s see, I, I’m going through, um, is it okay to vary time fasting from day to day? I fast the minimum of 16 hours, but depending on my schedule, I can go as long as 20 hours. Do I need a consistent fasting window?

Nicole Grant, RDN: (53:11)

If they do what works best for you? Um, and I think there is some, um, some reason to actually have shorter and longer. So, um, having a longer fast can really put you into that fat burning mode longer. Once we hit about 17 ish hours, autophagy starts turning on. Um, it’s kind of a dimmer. So the longer that we fast, the more autophagy signaling is happening. So if you can get a longer fast in a couple days a week to get these additional benefits, that’s great. And then we can have those shorter fasts, maybe a 14 or 16 hour fast that allows for an extra meal or an extra snack to really replenish your stores. So get more of those micronutrients and some more vitamins, minerals, more diversity of what you’re eating, getting enough protein to rebuild after that autophagy that cellular breakdown happens. Um, so I say if you know a varied fasting, um, approach works best for you, that’s great. There’s good benefits there. If a consistent one keeps you on track and holds you more accountable, that’s gonna work too. So I like just finding what works best for people and what they can be consistent with.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (54:35)

Yeah, and I, and I have, um, some thoughts on that as well because I find if you’re doing the same fast every day, that might be easier to do. Like your stomach might not growl you, you know, you might, your body might be expecting some routine bodies love routines, right? So it might be easier to be consistent. Um, however, if your life has irregular patterns, it’s okay to match that. And again, you can have different kinds of fast for different kinds of days and you might get different benefits. Um, but a lot of them you’re gonna get, you know, regardless, as long as you’re going for some period of time without, uh, eating. Alright, next one. Could you speak about intermittent fasting in perimenopause? Ooh, I have heard that it’s important for women to avoid long fastsduring week two. In week four, there’s a cycle. Does this apply during perimenopause when there’s no obvious cycle?

Nicole Grant, RDN: (55:40)

I think we’re gonna have an entire webinar. You’re alive on this topic. This is a very, very common question. Um, and again, I kind of default to what’s gonna work best for you. Um, you know, I think with some women when our hormones are fluctuating greatly, um, maybe we’re not sleeping well because of it. Um, maybe we’re highly stressed, um, then maybe a longer fast actually can be too much of a stress and longer, I mean, closer to that 18 hours. But I think a shorter fast is very sustainable and safe for most people. So 12 to 14 hour fasts I think would be a wonderful place to start. You’re gonna get some circadian rhythm benefits. Um, you’re gonna get a little bit of that, you know, tap into that fat burning a little bit. Um, which, you know, that weight gain is a common, common problem when we get into perimenopause. So I think maybe starting smaller and seeing what your body handles, that may be 12 to 14 hours and experiment from there. Um, but you know, as long as you’re supporting your body with healthy nutrition on top of it, you know, fasting should be, um, a, a great tool to have during this time of your life.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (56:59)

Yeah. And when there’s no obvious cycle, it’s really rough because you know, you, you don’t know where you are. So, you may recognize certain patterns. So for example, um, people will say, you know, right before my period, I’m just craving carbs and I can barely control myself. And, um, then cycles irregularly and they might be feeling that same effect, but they don’t know if they’re gonna get a period or not, right? So your hormones are cycling or not cycling, they’re sort of irregular during perimenopause. And so at that time you have to kind of go with how you’re feeling, how you’re sleeping. Just as Nicole said, it’s about what’s gonna work for you. The key to remember is your body is going to be, um, having a much easier time of letting go of muscle, losing muscle and gaining fat tissue in this time period. So this is a time, if nothing else, you should be exercising. And I agree, I like 12 to 14 hour fasts, um, in this time period as well. So if you don’t know, you can just kind of try that and some days you’re just gonna feel like you’re crushing it. You might have a little bit of a leftover, you know, estrogen surge and so then go, you know, go do you. Right? So it’s okay to have some variability there.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (58:22)

And we will have a whole webinar just on, uh, women’s hormone health. Uh, so that should be good. Um, next question. Nicole, can organic plant … Oops, I think it disappeared. Oh, there it is. Can organic plant-based protein be a pretty good option for those that may not eat meat?

Nicole Grant, RDN: (58:43)

Definitely. Um, plant-based proteins can still be combined to create a complete protein. Um, things like tofu, tempe, which I really love because it’s also fermented so that fermentation gets a little probiotics, it’s a little bit easier to digest. Those are some of my favorite options. Soaked and sprouted legumes or lentils, those are all gonna be great sources of protein. So you can definitely be plant-based and get enough protein and incorporate it into your fasting routine.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (59:21)

Fabulous. Alright, I think we’re gonna have to have a whole episode on thyroid issues. Um, ’cause the next question is, what recommendations do you have for those with thyroid issues such as hyperthyroidism and Graves disease, which is, uh, too much thyroid hormone, uh, where it’s easy to lose or gain weight depending on your medication? Yeah, this is one again, about hormone cycling and the different kinds of foods, uh, the prescription strengths, the kinds of thyroid hormone replacement. So it’s, this will be a separate conversation and it’s very individual based, but it’s very frustrating. And, um, I know the good news is it can be mastered, but it will be very much more personalized and dependent on the kind of, uh, medications that, um, or treatments you have if you have radioactive iodine or whatever. So it’s a little bit more complex. Um, next question. What if I work out before my window closes and can’t have a protein shake for a couple of hours? Is the protein still effective?

Nicole Grant, RDN: (01:00:29)

Yes, short answer, yes. Um, we’ve seen in some research that, especially in those people who work out consistently, that the timing of protein matters less. And what matters more is that you’re reaching your goals within that 24 ish hour period. So you’re consistently exercising, you can’t, you know, eat anything for another couple hours, that’s fine. Still prioritized protein, protein at that first meal to really stimulate that muscle protein synthesis and then focus on hitting your goals the rest of your day with the protein.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (01:01:08)

Alright, I am just loving these questions. Okay. Um, we have another question. I break my fast with an apple or banana and a protein shake with 45 grams of protein. Is that a good way to break it? I get hungry again after about 1.5 hours.

Nicole Grant, RDN: (01:01:27)

This is a fun question too. awesome. Yeah. Um, so I look at a couple things. So what’s gonna help keep us fuller longer is fiber, protein, healthy fat. So that meal has some fiber from our, our ve or our fruits has some protein from the protein shake, but it might be missing a little bit of healthy fat. So that could be one consideration is, in your protein shake, can you add some coconut milk? Um, you wanna throw in an avocado and blend it up in there? Um, is there a way to maybe get your body a little bit more calories and a little bit more healthy fats in there? Because secondly, what I would expect is typically we, you know, are a, a sustaining meal can last us about three to four hours before we’re, we’re hungry again, and we actually need that fuel, you know, that time for when our blood sugar elevates and comes back down, you, you, we properly digested that meal. So ideally your composing a meal with some fiber, protein and fat that’s gonna get you closer to that four hour mark before the time you’re hungry again. Any other thoughts?

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (01:02:48)

Yeah, I mean, I always think about if it makes you hungry again in 1.5 hours, it’s not filling the need needed, right? And it may be turning off fat burning, so I’d be curious to see what’s in the protein shake. Is there a bunch of sugar in there? Like what else is going on? Um, I’m not a huge fan of, um, you know, uh, blending fruit in like a, you know, blender and then putting it with a protein shake as a way to break the fast. Because for some people that can, um, be challenging on the liver because it’s, it might be, depending on how much fruit is in there, it can, it can be a lot of fructose, um, that, you know, and the fiber might have been broken down, uh, quite a bit. So, um, again, I would say if you notice you’re hungry in 1.5 hours after anything, it then look at it because maybe it’s not a real food or it could be improved with, um, like Nicole was saying, some fats or some, you know, uh, additional fiber for example. So, alright. And then next question, we’ve got a few more. When is the best time to exercise during a fast? And what are your thoughts on weight training for women 30 plus or fasting for bone and blood cell health?

Nicole Grant, RDN: (01:04:16)

So the first one, when’s the best time to exercise while fasting? Whenever You can fit it in as my first answer because we wanna encourage that. Um, but there’s a couple, couple windows that you can play around with. So, um, right, right, when you’re fast starts, you could exercise, um, that’s going to speed up your glycogen depletion, so it’s going to use up your, your stored glucose. And so when we use up that stored glucose faster, we get into fat burning mode faster. The one caveat there is sometimes later exercise, especially higher intensity exercise, if you’re doing it at 7:00 PM for example, some people find that that elevates their heart rate, gets them a little too excited, so sleep becomes disrupted. So potentially a better place to put our exercise could be in the morning before our, our best ends. And this is still going to again, ramp up that glycogen depletion, it’s going to encourage more of that fat burning for fuel. Um, so, you know, it’s kind of like place it where you see fit, so you’re still going to get that glycogen depletion and that fat burning benefit despite where you place it. Um, unless you have anything else to add?

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (01:05:42)

No, I mean, that’s exactly what I would’ve said too. So you know, in the beginning of the fast, you’re gonna get into fat burning much faster. If you do it anytime during the fast after you’re in fat burning, you get to burn more fat. So, um, pretty awesome. And then of course, um, it’s good for you regardless, right? Even if you’re not fasting. So, um, anytime you do it, we’re super thrilled about that and your body will Thank you. Now that second part of the question. Weight training for women, 30 plus fasting for bone and blood cell health, um, yeah. Weight training, yes. I mean, I don’t, I don’t know what else to say about it. Yes, do it if you can do it safely, definitely. If you need a trainer, if you need someone to help you learn how to do it, you don’t have to do a lot. You just should be doing that because particularly for women, um, you wanna maximize your bone density and your muscle strength earlier in life because once the hormones start getting a little wild around perimenopause, it’s very easy to lose our goodies, like our muscle and bone. And so you wanna build beforehand blood cell help. I think if that’s talking about, um, red bloods, like anemia or if we’re talking about cells in general with mitochondria, not sure about that. Um, you wanna clarify what that’s about? Um, that would be helpful.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (01:07:24)

Um, should we move on to the next question?

Nicole Grant, RDN: (01:07:27)

Yeah, let’s.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (01:07:28)

Do you have anything to add on that?

Nicole Grant, RDN: (01:07:30)

Uh, I was just gonna say the current recommendations, uh, two full body workouts, strength training workouts per week would be an ideal goal to aim for. For most people. It’s really that weight bearing exercise. It’s gonna strengthen your bones, like you mentioned, and also building up that lean muscle mass that Yep. As we get older, unfortunately we have a harder time holding on to, so I agree.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (01:07:58)

Alright. We are at almost a quarter after, I think at a quarter after. What we’ll do is we’ll do the summary of the five key points. Um, and I’ll add another question here. I’m three weeks into fasting and finding the 16 eight is fairly simple. Woo, congratulations. But not really losing weight. Should I extend my fast? What a fantastic question. Okay. Um, any thoughts Nicole?

Nicole Grant, RDN: (01:08:30)

I like to take a holistic look when we’re at a weight loss plateau or we’re not hitting our goals. Um, so one, yes, we can adjust our fasting window, we can play around with that. But secondly, I would also look at your nutrition. Um, what are we eating? You know, is our Fast Breaker and Fast Starter in alignment with some of these goals? Are we managing our insulin levels? Um, exercise? Are you moving your body? Um, if not, maybe let’s start, you know, getting some, some movement in. I’ve also seen it too, where if you start fasting or nutrition protocol and you start exercising and building muscle, it doesn’t always reflect on the scale. So muscle weighs more than fat. So if you’re building muscle and losing fat, it may not show up on the scale immediately. So I’d say give that some time, but also look at sleep stress management. I mean those two things can really throw off our ability to, to lose weight as well. So kind of, you know, taking a step back and, and looking at what else might be going on in, in your life and is there anything else that we can focus on

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (01:09:45)

Totally in agreement with all of that? I think, um, one thing that people often forget about is medications. So there are many medications that cause some, just a little bit of weight loss and some massive weight loss. And so, or weight gain. Weight gain, I’m talking about weight gain, . So some medications might cause five to 10 pounds of weight gain and others can cause 50 plus. So it’s important to review the medications with your doctor and see if there might be some that are weight gainers and that could be altered so that you’re on one that doesn’t cause weight gain, also sleep. So, and there, that’s a whole nother webinar as well. But with sleep, sleep is the time that you should be decompressing and your cortisol or your stress hormones should be coming down. If, however, you have sleep that’s unrestful, maybe you have sleep apnea that’s not treated well, that’s effectively as if somebody’s holding a pillow over your face while you’re sleeping and you can’t get enough oxygen all night.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (01:10:52)

It’s very hard for your body to relax and recover then. And so that can cause an artificially elevated stress response in the body at nighttime. And that also makes it hard to lose weight. Again, back to that cortisol, if you are in a very high stress situation and you do not have opportunities to decompress, then it is going to set up your hormone system to easily gain weight with very little food. Um, so some people will come in and they’ll say, I’m hardly eating anything. I don’t know why I am not losing weight. And of course that’s not the goal to hardly eat anything, but I look and they really are hardly eating anything and they’re gaining weight and it turns out much of the time, it’s either medications or extreme unrelenting stress. Maybe being a caregiver, being in a profession that’s, uh, very, very challenging and stressful.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (01:11:49)

Anything that does not give you any relief, that can be a very hard, um, hard stop on the weight loss. So. Alright, next question. Um, next questions we’ll have to defer because I wanna make sure we get to the five key takeaways, um, the summaries and, um, is that okay, Nicole? Yeah, let’s do it all. Alright, all all the wonderful questions we’ve received, we are actually going to keep them. And um, again, we are putting together more and more questions to be able to answer at future webinars and hope that you’ll join us so we can continue to layer on the knowledge. So here are the five key takeaways for weight loss and health gain. Number one, weight loss and health gain is achievable with fasting alone and your nutrition choices can further enhance your fat burning capabilities. Number two, Fast Starters. Prioritize your proteins and healthy fats.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (01:13:01)

Avoid sugar and ultra-processed foods to make it easier for you. Number three, Fast Breakers. We talked about easing in with hydration. Get those fermented foods for your gut microbiome. Include protein as we talked about, and cook your vegetables for that first Fast Breaker. Carbohydrates should be based on your activity level, your goals, and your health status. So you’re gonna be carbohydrate conscious. And number four, does it break my fast? Really what we’re talking about is does it interfere with the goals of my fast? So again, it will depend on fat, uh, burning and weight loss. You’ll want to do anything that keeps your insulin low. Number five, bonus weight loss tip. If it spikes insulin fat burning is turned off. So keep that insulin low.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (01:14:07)

Alright, so that was our final five, uh, summary from today’s, um, webinar. We’ve got some resources and support here for you. Remember with the Xero app, you can get that personalized attention and figure out what works for your body. You can learn the science of fasting, you can message our support team or email us at and you can follow us on social at Zero Longevity. Nicole has a lot of stuff here in this learning section of the app so you can learn more from all of the, uh, wonderful articles that she has written and the research that she’s reviewed. So definitely, uh, dive in there and with Zero Plus you can learn how much fasting and other activities like sleep and exercise are needed to get your insulin low enough that you’re getting into a fat burn mode. So use Zero Plus to use your personal data to get to fat burning faster.

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD: (01:15:10)

And if you enjoyed this, please be on the lookout for a survey coming up and the upcoming webinars. Tell your friends Follow up emails should be coming by tomorrow and this recording will be available on YouTube and we’ll share the link via that email. Thank you all so much for joining and I also wanna have a shout out for the back team, which you can’t even see right now. Nicole, uh, um, is, obviously you can see her right there. And then we’ve got Nick and we have Bea and another person who helped me get organized here, uh, Sis who is not on right now, but um, we’ve got a huge team that have helped make this possible. So thank you all. Have a great night. Thanks for joining everyone. Thank you. Bye-Bye.

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